[x] WHEN I WRITE I BLOG, WHAT STEPS DO I TAKE TO GETTING THAT ENTRY TO SHOW UP ON MY WEBPAGE?
[A] You need to ensure that you "Publish" the post before it shows up. Using the "Save" or "Save and Continue Editing" will make the post a draft.
[x] WHAT CHANGES DO I NEED TO MAKE TO THE INFORMATION INSTALLED WITHOUT MESSING EVERYTHING UP?
[A] This is a very vague question and thus a vague answer. You can go through the Admin section of WP and make any and all changes without 'messing' anything up. If you start manually playing with the files that were installed through CPanel, then that's a different story.
Also remember that you probably used Fantastico to install WP and whenever they upgrade to a newer version, the less modifications you make to the core WP files, the easier the upgrade will be.
[x] HOW CAN I CHANGE THE LOCATION OF THE WORDPRESS IN MY PUBLIC_HTML FILE AND STILL BE ABLE TO LOG IN?
[A] Please check out this link to learn about moving WP within a particular directory.
[x] WHAT ARE TEMPS AND HOW DO I USE THEM?
[A] Temps? No clue.
I think it would be a good idea for you to do some reading on the <A href="http://codex.wordpress.org/Main_Page">Codex to get your feet wet with WP.