@WayfaringRanger renaming a plugin means it can not run. It is the equivalent to deactivating the plugin.
Usually you can't deactivate the plugin because you can't get into the WordPress admin so going in at the file level works.
Deleting the plugin also works but you probably want to reinstall the plugin later on ( if/when it gets fixed - or updated). Most plugins write back fields and content to the main WordPress db.
Some plugins have an un-install function and that should clean the content out of the main db. Deleting a plugin shouldn't lose that other content but you wouldn't want to uninstall.
Someone else will know more about the connection between deletion and an uninstall process. I don't believe there is one.
But if you had a rogue plugin that was causing issues you would want to delete it AND almost certainly clean out those files on your main WP database.
But in a situation like this - just want to deactivate and that preserves the settings and other content for later. ( Once you are back into WordPress admin then you can rename the plugin back to the original and keep it deactivated till a fix has been made.)