I figured out how to add a Home button by making a customized menu in the dashboard. I also figured out how to change the color of the navigation buttons through .entry-title a:hover, #access li.current_page_item a, & #access a:hover. I managed to change the color of the search form through #header input#s.
But how do I changed the color of the "Search this website..." placeholder text?
How do I changed the color of the Navigation toggle bar (the one that forms on mobile devices)? #access .nav-toggle only affects one section of the mobile nav bar, not the entire thing.