While http://codex.wordpress.org/Administration_Over_SSL is very helpful to the tech savvy, my situation is I already have my SSL certificate all set up and ready to go. I just changed the followings:
1. Under Options in your Admin Panel, changed WordPress address (URI): to https://www.example.com/blog instead of http://www.example.com/blog
2. I have specified my Blog address (URI): as http://www.example.com/ (NOT https://)
I believe that's it... It works great for me but keep in mind I have a different setup than most WP users (I integrated my website with WordPress). But the above serves as a hint for someone who is trying to login AND browse the Admin with SSL. I got both functioning with no problems - NO extra plugins needed, NO rewrite rules needed on .htaccess, NO changes in any files. Of course, this all assume you already have the SSL certificate installed good and ready to go.
As a side note, for some reason after I did the above, my LiveCalendar is having problems with its xmlhttprequest function. I just deactivate LiveCalendar from my Admin Panel - but DO NOT delete the plugin from your server. It will still work fine - only the xmlhttprequest part will not be functioning. I don't really mind since it will just need to refresh the page to get the desired results. xmlhttprequest only makes it much faster.
Hope this is helpful! I have been searching and experimenting all day long...