Hard to be super specific without seeing what you mean, but a couple thoughts come to mind.
- Settings > Reading can change your front page to be "excerpts" instead of the full post (if that's what you mean by all the content)
- your theme's front page may be generated by your themes frontpage.php, home.php or possibly index.php. If you're comfortable with some code tinkering (consider using a WordPress Child Them first) you can do anything you want! I'd tackle this in one of two ways:
- If your theme doesn't have a frontpage.php, you can make one and copy the code from the file it is using (WordPress has a default hierarchy it uses: http://codex.wordpress.org/Template_Hierarchy) and make the changes you want (like getting rid of the call to the_content or the_excerpt
- If you don't want to create a new file you can use the Is Front Page conditional wrapper to call a different loop: http://codex.wordpress.org/Function_Reference/is_front_page
I hope this gets you off to a start.