Sure there is, but we can try to prevent or minimize this. Go to your WordPress updates and take a look if there are some updates notifications, if there's a plugin that needs to be updates, you can start from there. Now also before you do an upgrade, WordPress will tell you what plugins are compatible as well. Please note that WP relies solely on what author of the plugin says.
If the plugin isn't compatible with the version of WordPress you want to upgrade to, find another one that works as similar. That is one of the ways how this is handled.
Don't be afraid of upgrades, but backup your files prior to this, just to be on the safe side that's all. You will not loose anything even if the upgrade goes bad and backup is only to restore your previously saved settings.