My images were not showing up in my posts. Ditto with any plugins (like Excerpts+) I see that this problem has something to do with the "Set Featured Image" in the WP post area. Found out I was "inserting into post" instead of "set as featured image" The reason is because set as featured image was not there due to the fact that I was linking to a URL instead of uploading via my computer. When I found out you are forced to upload via computer (using the default WP uploads directory) if you want to use a featured image, I tried that.
Now to describe my second issue: as soon as I uploaded the image the usual way into the WP Media Library, the image immediately came up with a broken image logo instead of the actual image and would remain broken when viewing the actual post as well. So I was back to Google trying to see if anyone else had this issue and some folks did and said that they fixed it by adding the full URL path in the WP Settings > Media section... only here's the crazy freaking part: I don't have a Full URL Path input field in my Settings > Media admin page! OMG! Yeah, this is absolutely nuts right? Why would something standard like this be missing from my admin area?
I tried logging out back in all that jazz and nothing. Here is a screenshot: