I really am trying hard to understand the heirachy, but it seems like there is sub heirachies and i dont know how to make it call on the ones I want.
Well, you're kinda all over the place here, so I don't understand what exactly you don't understand about it. Calm down. Relax. Stop trying to do silly things and make a plan instead. Understand WTF you're doing BEFORE you change things.
In very simple terms... WordPress has two kinds of things: Posts and Pages. Do NOT get these confused, they are wholly separate. Posts show up where posts show up (all sorts of places) and Pages only show up on their specific Page. Pages are outside the hierarchy entirely.
The Hierarchy defines where Posts appear. A Post appears in lots of places. On the main blog page, on the author pages, on the category pages, on tag pages, in date archives, etc. The point here is that you should not think of it as sending the post to all these places. Instead, you need to think of it from the URL perspective. The URL tells WordPress what Posts it is supposed to get and display.
So that URL above (http://pittspolitics.com/wordpress/author/cpitts7014/ ) tells WordPress to go get all of Carl's posts and display them. Simple.
Now, the Template Hierarchy that we linked to earlier defines on what Template they appear on. If we're looking at author posts, then first WordPress is going to look for author.php in the them. If it finds it, then it uses it. If not, it goes down a level and looks for the next one. And so on, until it finally gives up and resorts to index.php.
My point is that WordPress *always* loads one and only one Template from the theme per page display. Usually this is the index.php file, because most people look at the main blog page. That one and only Template loads everything else, like the header, the footer, the sidebar, whatever. It's the starting point.
So when you go to http://pittspolitics.com/wordpress/author/cpitts7014/, then you not only get all of Carl's posts (without changing ANYTHING in the theme at all), but you also get WordPress to look for author.php, archive.php, and finally index.php, using the first one it finds to make the page display. Got it?
Pages work entirely differently. Pages are self-standing entities, outside the system. They use the page.php or the index.php file to display themselves, and they can also each have "custom" things called "Page Templates" assigned to them if you want. However, you should never think about Pages as holding Posts, because they don't. Posts are separate entirely.
Does that help any? I really don't understand much of the rest of your post, so you'll have to ask questions one at a time...