Took a quick look and there is definitely something very odd going on. I was able to confirm that the changes to the values in the checkout form are being saved as they are changed one at a time. But when the purchase button is clicked it is as though nothing has been saved.
If you suspect database problems the best thing might be to backup the database, then restore it to what it was immediately prior to the 3.8.14 upgrade. Then let the upgrade re-run.
If you want to audit the tables structure and make sure everything is there, you can either look in the admin folder for the SQL that creates the tables, or do a clean install to a test environment and compare the tables that are created to what you have in the database.
What kind of 'repair' did you do on the database?
https://app.getresponse.com/view_webform.js?wid=126283 523 (Origin Unreachable)
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