I went to the "Background" section under "Appearances" to adjust it and save it again, but the background just remains white instead of displaying the color I have chosen.
I believe it is the theme options generated stylesheet. I can click on "Editor" and it will take me to the stylesheet for my current theme.
@Alexis403, The editor in not the same as theme options (a set of options available with your theme). If you make changes to theme options and they do not 'stick', you have a problem with your installation and/or theme and/or plugins. While using the editor to modify a theme file may fix a minor CSS issues, that does not resolve the (yes, obvious) problem of theme options not working properly.
Then we agree that the overall solution to this is not just theme file edits, but using a theme that works properly (and that the edits will have to be redone on each theme upgrade)?