For the blue line, this is the default colour for widgets for the Lite version. My Pro version offers multiple colours and even though part of the css from the Pro is in the Lite version, you will have to modify the css manually for the Lite version (preferably using a child theme...which I have available from my site's tutorials on this theme).
The style in question is found in the theme's style.css around line 986 and looks like this:
/* Module style 1 */
border-top:1px solid #78a5b6;
border-bottom:1px solid #78a5b6;
That bluish colour is the #78a5b6 that you see above in the code.
For the Links under "Recent Posts", they are not blue but a grey. What colour did you want those links to be?
For the Footer links, same question, what colour did you want the links?
Font type, size, etc, are done partly from the style.css and from the theme's customizer. Colour of text for your main content is from the customizer which right now your's is set to black #000000. For the font family and the base size, this is in the style.css around line 63 and looks like this:
font-family: "PT Sans", Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
Font size is done from many places so it's a case of looking for all the font-size: within the style.css file. But the base size is in the code I just posted above at 100% which should equal 16px. My theme also uses rem values which are relative sizing. So any text using the rem attribute instead of px, will be relative to the html size of 100% as noted above. Here is a good tool for converting sizes: http://pxtoem.com/
But, for the main content area, the styling is found just below the html one above around line 68 and looks like this:
A little side note for helping you learn CSS...I bookmarked this myself and use it many times: http://www.w3schools.com/