I just had this problem, searched for a fix here, couldn't find one, then worked it out for myself. Thought I'd share the solution in case anyone else gets it.
I made a post with no category, and the title had a '<noscript>' tag in it (wreckless, I know). The tag was closed in the body, so it displayed fine on the blog itself, but the Manage page cut off halfway through the listing for that entry, meaning no other posts were listed and the edit link was missing for the only one that could be seen.
The way to fix it was to hit the Dashboard, where there's a direct link to edit that post.