In case anyone else comes across this issue, I was able to hide pages as desired using a plug-in called "Exclude Pages from Navigation" by Simon Wheatley. It embeds a checkbox in each post to include the page in navigation menus; by default it is checked, but if you uncheck the box, it removes the pages from WordPress Mobile Pack views.
Note that in normal desktop view mode, the hardcoded pageIDs that I marked as hidden were still hidden even after activating the plug-in, which again is set to "include" pages in navigation by default.
So, it seems to play very nicely with existing settings. Brilliant little plug-in. Got 5 stars from me.