I have followed the post noted below to include captions for each of my slide show images, but as of yet no success.
meteor-slides.css and meteor-slideshow.php have been moved to my theme directory. Paths have been changed to reflect the move of the slide show navigation.
I have updated meteor-slideshow.php with the following, and confirmed that there is copy describing the image within the media library. Code looks like this:
<?php // Get the featured image's description
$ms_thumb_id = get_post_thumbnail_id($id);
$ms_description = esc_attr( get_post_field( 'post_content', $ms_thumb_id ) );
echo '<p>' . $ms_description . '</p>';
</div><!-- .mslide -->