The page linked is just an example. Any page with a featured image has an issue.
I have checked the console for errors and gone through these notes: https://blog.futtta.be/2022/05/05/what-to-do-when-autoptimize-breaks-your-site/
without any luck.
I have a staging site set up and a similar link on that staging site shows the issue in action:
The page I need help with: [log in to see the link]