Figured out how to fix it:
Rename your wp-content/plugins folder to pluginsxxx or something like that.
You should then be able to determine if your visual editor is working at all. This step allowed me to verify that the visual editor is working and in fact a plugin was the culprit.
After you change the plugin folder back to the correct name, you must go through each plugin, EVEN THE INACTIVE ONES, and look for TinyMCE support. I found a plugin that was no longer active that utilized TinyMCE, that was causing the problem. Deleting the plugin (happened to be WP-super edit).
Once I deleted, not just de-activated, this plugin, BOOM, the visual editor came back.
Everything else is still fine.