TG: Those are not available on my General Options page, at least on the installation I can access from work at the moment. I haven't updated it from CVS for about a week. Near as I can remember, though, my sandbox at home, which is updated through April 25 CVS, doesn't have those settings, either. Now that you mention it, though, I seem to recall seeing those in an earlier version.
2f: I wasn't prepared to call it a bug, because of the semantics. We have at least two words at play under "Discussion Options": "posted" and "appear", plus perhaps "publish" and "submit". Technically, if "posted" means "appear" as in "published", then a comment awaiting moderation hasn't been "posted" and shouldn't generate an email. But if a comment that's "posted" is supposed to mean one that's "submitted" but awaiting moderation, then an email should be sent. Hence my confusion as to whether the behavior I'm seeing is correct or incorrect in the eyes of the developers.
I'll play with it a little more this evening and post it as a "bug" if I think I can justify it. I didn't want to get in the way in a different thread if this is the design or just a quirk in my installation. Also, I generally assume developers are checking *all* the topics in the beta discussion section.