I don't think that would work. There's two reasons why.
First, the categories are (under normal circumstances) listed by title, so it's ordered A-Z and the ID doesn't come into the sorting. Of course this will depend on your theme, but most themes do it this way by default.
Secondly, categories are stored in the same DB table as posts and all other content types, so you can set the ID to a large number, but anything that's added after that will take the next available largest number due to the way that database indexing works. This meams that if you add a new category after you change everything, it will have a higher ID number anyway.
Can you give some example of your categories and how you want them to be ordered for the posts?