Pretty easy to do. If you scope out all the 'main page types' of the site, shouldn't be hard.
If the 'front page' is the only page with the 'latest review plus recent covers' layout, not a big problem.
And, it really isn't an issue of CSS. More an issue of how you want to organize index.php. You can have index.php show only the 'latest' entry (set per-page to one), then use custom code to show the album art/title from the last n reviews yourself. Or, have the site set up to show n+1 posts per page, but then only show large pic and excerpt for the first, then custom-layout for the rest.
I use my CG-Inline plugin to insert graphics in posts, and a custom processing step 'extracts' the pix on the homepage. Possible you'll want to use something like that, or one of the image gallery systems, to manage large+thumbnail images (if I were doing a site like that, I'd likely depend on someone like Amazon for images, making it easy to just embed the ID of the album and pull up whatever size image is needed for a given post's layout...).
Drop a line if you need suggestions/help.