I feel it would be most helpful if I explained the backstory...
The company I work for owns a server but it wasn't running PHP or MySQL. So we spent some of Friday working on that and I thought we had it up and running 100%. I then installed a fresh new copy of WordPress.
However, when I try to upload a media file (not the multi-file uploader) or when I try to install/upload a plug-in, I receive a 500 Internal server error. When I try to upload a media file using the multi-file uploader I receive a small block of text that says "HTTP Error". I believe this is also breaking my TimThumb.php file necessary for my current theme. I currently have this exact same theme installed on 2 different servers and have not encountered this problem which leads me to believe we did something incorrect on the server during install.
I did some research and read about permissions. I checked the permissions and everything within the WordPress directory is listed as 755. I currently don't have access to the .htaccess file nor the server error log, but I might be able to if I ask the IT department.
Also, I am unsure if this is related or not...but I have the Fast Secure Contact Form plug-in installed (I was able to do this by downloading the ZIP manually and dropped it in the correct folder using an FTP app). Within the settings for the plug-in, I am receiving this error message:
There is a problem with the directory /captcha/temp/. The directory Unwritable (fix permissions). Permissions are: 0777 Fixing this may require assigning 0755 permissions or higher (e.g. 0777 on some hosts. Try 0755 first, because 0777 is sometimes too much and will not work.) Fixing the actual problem is recommended, but you can uncheck this setting on the contact form options page: "Use CAPTCHA without PHP session" and the captcha will work this way just fine (as long as PHP sessions are working).
I checked said folder and it was listed as 755, not 777 as it states.
I would appreciate any and all help! Thank you all!