Why would there be a filter for every plugin or theme to create it's owned named version of the same image?
FWIW, there isn't. :) When a theme/plugin does that, it's because they use extra, special, image sizes. (Just explaining for anyone else who wanders into this conversation and scratches their head.)
The Shortcode could reference the image ID and the desired size.
Even if you're proposing the shortcode edit the image and create the right size on the fly, this is a bad idea. People upload very very very very very large images. It's far better to have the image resized on upload, where it won't impact the visitor, than to have it done when they hit the page.
Out of curiosity... Why this push to 'name' images differently?