Syntax Highlighter ComPress is a plugin for code syntax highlighting. It loads fast on the website and code can pasted easily into WordPress.
This is pretty much the only function and up-to-date plugin of its kind...that I could find. It pretty much works exactly as I had hoped. However, the "insert syntax" window does not provide an option for controlling the gutter option manually, rather this is controlled as a global setting for the plugin.
I have posted a feature request in the WordPress forum.
*The gutter is the column of numbers next to the syntax.