It could be done as simply as choosing a theme you like the look of, creating a category called "articles" and then adding a sidebar or menu link to the category.
You can change how the category view appears in the default theme's archives.php (or is it archive.php?)
You can take it as far as creating pages for each article, giving each page it's own style, and unique sidebar.
But there is no theme I know of ready for downloading which already offers these sorts of features.
To really get WP working like this, you will either need to read up on themes and styling WordPress in the codex, or seek the help of someone who knows how to do that sort of extensive customization.
But that's a great idea for a new theme. Thanks!