I have found out that in my case, this plug-in causes the problem with the
options disappearing. So please be wary of this potential clash.
This is a huge problem already documented here in the forums.
Since scouring the WordPress forum's about this I almost gave up with finding a cure. Simply, for 'apparently' no reason (and I use apparently loosley here) the Visual Editor would vanish. Now it seems there are several manifestation's of this. More...
One is the actual Visual Editor would actually vanish completely, leaving you with just the Code tab.
The other one, which I suffer from, would be that the actual Visual Editor menu options would disapear. So you still had the Visual Editor and Code tabs visible, but any way of actually selecting any of the (I will now use the abbreviation VE) VE options would be impossible, as there were not any to choose from.
Leaving for a very frustrating time.
It's a very common issue, with many contributory factors. Some are just messed up experimental coding, breaking WordPress. I know, I was a prime example of this.
Others though, seem on the outside to be utterly random. I have seen people go to extreme lengths to remedy this issue, with no luck. There are some htings you can do that sometime's sorts the problem out, but ultimately, for the number of people, they are stuck without hope.
Im don't have a miracle solution, but I do have a contributory cause in my particular experience, so it can be added to the one of many external factors.
Simple, it was the Share It plug-in. Deactivate it, the VE would appear. Activate the Plug-in and the VE would disappear. Now I don't know why I didn't figure this out earlier. I thought I had de-installed all plug-ins as part of the elimination procedure, clearly not.
But this is a reproducible error and is not a fluke.
Hope this helps