No, that will kill your site immediately. You need to add a prefix (other than wp_, something more secure) to a) all tables, b) fields in the options table, c) fields in the usermeta table.
a) is straightforward, but in b) and c) fields don't necessarily have any prefixes attached to them. How are you supposed to know which ones to change?
When I installed Wördpress (without frakking camelcase) years ago, there was NO information saying that an empty prefix was ”not supported”, and if it indeed were not supported it shouldn't even be allowed to proceed with an empty field; that's BAD programming.
If this later changes, Wördpress needs to accomodate for this by adding a prefix automatically when upgrading. You can't just leave your users in the dark because you can't program properly. This is pure evil.