All of that additional meta information (article summary, where published, etc) is on my to-do list for a future release. At the moment, there's no functionality to add that to the system.
The author, though, is a field you can use. But right now, the author field is meant to represent authors external to the site.
For example, if one of your Publications was the play "Hamlet," you'd want to list William Shakespeare as the author. There's a box on the right-hand side of the Publication edit screen where you can add authors. Think of these for now as free-form tags (like tags/categories for a post). It's just a way to categorize your publications for now.
As for the "download button" and "title name," all of the markup is located in
/lib/class.publication-markup.php. I apologize that the strings aren't properly internationalized, but this markup file was meant to be a short-term fix while I re-built the templating engine and I got sideswiped by other projects.
If you need to modify any of the markup in this file, feel free ... just keep in mind that much of this file will disappear in a future version.