So after a very large headache, I figured out my issue with W3 Total Cache giving me a white screen whenever I tried to access the wordpress admin. I'm not sure specifically where it lies, but there's a conflict with W3 Total Cache and Pods UI. I deactivated all plugins and reactivated them one by one, and I was able to reactivate everything except Pods UI. The issue occurs even if W3 Total Cache is installed but not activated. It seems to me that a plugin should not be conflicting with another plugin if it's not activated, but I'm not totally familiar with what's going on behind the scenes for W3 Total Cache.