1) They NEVER delete trac tickets. Ever. They may close them, but they don't delete. It's just not done. Search for whatever name you entered the ticket under (I didn't find any for vinautomatic on http://core.trac.wordpress.org but I don't know if you used that ID)
2) I read the article.
Every article on the net I have seen written by an SEO expert regarding WordPress permalinks suggests that users either use
/%category%/%postname% for their permalink structure. This is a bad idea for many reasons, which I will cover below, yet the SEO experts continue to promote it.
That made me laugh. I know NO SEO 'expert' who touts that. (also the article uses the codex suggestion of starting with a number as an SEO thing when it's really a performance issue, which marks the author down on my reliability list).
3. This one's past my ability to sort out. I can't reproduce it, and I don't know of enough (more than 2) people having anything like this issue. The more info you provide, though, like how someone moved the site etc, makes me think that you're inheriting someone's POS install. And that's hell to support.