First, let's figure out what exactly you mean by "publish".
Up at the top of the thread, you said this:
"the page that is supposed to be published does not exist on the server (../2006/04/24/xxx/) so I get a 404 error."
That's sorta the whole point here. You're expecting it to create a file on your webserver for that directory structure. But it's not going to do that. Those are not real files anywhere, they are permalinks. The permalink is converted to something else by the WordPress software.
"Publish" means to put the post into your database and then to do the necessary stuff to show it on your blog. But it doesn't create any new files anywhere or anything like that.
You posted your .htaccess file above, and it's correct, if you have your wordpress installed at the root of your website. If the blog is in a subdirectory of your website, then you need to set some options in the admin panel correctly and it will change that .htaccess file to match.
What is the exact structure of the files in your website directory? This is crucial information and you need to set things up correctly for things to work correctly.