I've had this work correctly once and incorrectly twice since the WordPress 3.5 update (and subsequent Facebook plugin update). The latest post that was published today shows the correct featured image all over my site but when it published to my Facebook timeline it shows a random featured image (well, it used the same one last time this happened, so maybe not entirely random). If I type the link directly into a status on Facebook, it pulls that same wrong image.
There aren't other "real" images on the post, they're all embedded photos from Pinterest (ie, not in my own uploads folder), so I don't know if that's what causing the problem? The only actual uploaded photo is the featured image, which isn't showing through the Facebook publishing feature. Our post from last week was set up similarly, however, and the featured image displayed correctly that time.
Is there a fix for this?