Basically it is difficult for us to understand who is an advanced user and who is a basic user and what is purpose if not explained. We take as normal publicly available website or just an installation on local computer for developmental purpose.
For normal usage on Debian (or Ubuntu) there is not much difference in aptitude and apt-get command. You can read this quite informative thread :
Anyway, your basic question is actually related to core unix commands and server, not much to do with WordPress. This is actually the answer for you for Installing WordPress on Home folder:
It can not happen that Ubuntu forum will not help you, in case of further issue, please refer them to that thread and ask your specific need there.
And you can use a GUI on remote server by installing Desktop and TightVNC through shell / PuTTY. That is actually easy way people use for internal secured works. But I will stop here as it is WordPress forum, not really intended for unix commands. There are other ways too like using Ubuntu's various features through packages.